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     References on this website are usually enclosed in parentheses and cited by the lead author’s last name and the year of publication; for example: (Kennicott, 1861). If there are two or three authors, all last names are used. If more than three authors, the reference is cited with the lead author’s last name followed by the abbreviation “et al.” meaning “and others.” If a specific page is referenced, it follows the year, separated by a colon. Therefore, (Kanaan, et al., 2015:478) refers to page 478 in an article published in 2015 by Kanaan and more than two additional authors. If the author’s name(s) are part of a sentence on the webpage, the year of publication may stand alone in parentheses. In any case, the entire reference can then be found below, listed in alphabetical order by the first author's last name. In some cases, a PDF copy of the reference can be viewed by clicking the [PDF] link at the end of the reference. Abbreviation "Ed." = editor.

Bieber, A.L., T. Tu and A.T. Tu. 1975. Studies of an acidic cardiotoxin isolated from the venom of Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus Scutulatus). Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 400:178–188.

Brooks, D.E., K.A. Graeme, A.M. Ruha, and D.A. Tanen. 2002. Respiratory compromise in patients with rattlesnake envenomation. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 23(4):329–332. [PDF]

Bush, S.P., S.M. Green, J.A. Moynihan, W.K. Hayes and M.D. Cardwell. 2002. Crotalidae Polyvalent Immune Fab (Ovine) antivenom is efficacious for envenomations by Southern Pacific Rattlesnakes (Crotalus helleri). Annals of Emergency Medicine. 40:619-624. [PDF]

Campbell, J.A. and W.W. Lamar 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere, 2 vols. 898 pp. Comstock Publishing, Ithica, New York.

Cardwell, M.D. 2006. Rain-harvesting in a wild population of Crotalus s. scutulatus (Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetological Review 37:142–144. [PDF]

Cardwell, M.D. 2008. The reproductive ecology of Mohave rattlesnakes. Journal of Zoology 274:65–76. [PDF]

Cardwell, M.D. 2013. Behavioral changes by Mohave Rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus) in response to drought. Unpublished thesis, California State University, Sacramento, California. (available at [PDF]

Cardwell, M.D. 2016. Species Accounts. Mohave Rattlesnake Crotalus scutulatus (Kennicott 1861). Pp. 563–605 In G.W. Schuett, M.J. Feldner, C.F. Smith, and R.S. Reiserer (Eds.), Rattlesnakes of Arizona, vol. 1. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, New Mexico.

Cardwell, M.D. 2020. The Mohave Rattlesnake and How It Became an Urban Legend. 140 pp. ECO Publishing, Rodeo, New Mexico.

Cardwell, M.D., S.W. Gotte, R.W. McDiarmid, N. Gilmore and J.A. Poindexter 2013. Type specimen of Crotalus scutulatus (Chordata: Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) re-examined, with new evidence after more than a century of confusion. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 126:11–16. [PDF]

Cardwell, M.D., D.J. Massey, G. Smelski and W. Wüster. 2022. Mohave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus) identification revisited. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine. (n press) [PDF]

Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards, and snakes of North America. Pp.153–1270 + 36 pls. In: Report of the U.S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1898. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. [PDF (pp. 1158-1160 only)]

Crother, B.I. (Ed.) 2017. Scientific and Standard English Names of Amphibians and Reptiles of North America North of Mexico, with Comments Regarding Confidence in our Understanding, (8th ed). Herpetological Circular #43, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. [PDF pp. 64-65 only]

Dart, R.C., K.M. Hurlbut, R. Garcia and J. Boren. 1996. Validation of a Severity Score for the Assessment of Crotalid Snakebite. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 27:321-326. [PDF]

Forrester, J.A., T.G. Weiser and J.D. Forrester 2018. An update on fatalities due to venomous and nonvenomous animals in the United States (2008–2015). Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 29:36–44. [PDF]

Gerardo, C.J., J.R.N. Vissoci, C.S. Evans, D.L. Simel and E.J. Lavonas. 2019. Does this patient have a severe snake envenomation? The rational clinical examination systematic review. JAMA Surgery. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2018.5069. Published online February 13, 2019. [PDF]

Glenn, J.L., and R. Straight 1978. Mojave rattlesnake Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venom: variation in toxicity with geographical origin. Toxicon 16:81–84. [PDF]

Glenn, J.L., and R.C. Straight 1982. The rattlesnakes and their venom yield and lethal toxicity. Pp. 3–119 In A.T. Tu (Ed.). Rattlesnake Venoms, Their Actions and Treatment. Marcel Dekker, New York.

Githens, T.S. 1931. Antivenin: Its preparation and standardization. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America. IV(4):81–85. [PDF]

Grenard, S. 2000. Is rattlesnake venom evolving? Natural History Magazine July-August:44–49. [PDF]

Hardy, D.L. Sr. 1983. Envenomation by the Mojave Rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) in southern Arizona, U.S.A. Toxicon 21:111–118. [PDF]

Hardy, D.L. Sr. 1985. Fatal rattlesnake envenomation in Arizona: 1969-1984. Toxicon 23:572. [PDF]

Hardy, D.L. Sr. 1988. The epidemiology of rattlesnake envenomation in Tucson, Arizona: 1973-1980, A preliminary report. Sonoran Herpetologist May 1988. [PDF]

Hayes, W.K. and S.P. Mackessy. 2010. Sensational journalism and tales of snakebite: Are rattlesnakes rapidly evolving more toxic venom? Wilderness and Environmental Medicine. 21:35–45. [PDF]

Holycross, A.T. 2000. Letters: Venomous exchange? (response to Grenard, S. 2000. Is rattlesnake venom evolving? Natural History Magazine 7/00-8/00:44-49; and Grenard’s rebuttal). Natural History Magazine. 9/00:8. [PDF]

Janes D.N., S.P. Bush, and G.R. Kolluru 2010. Large snake size suggests increased snakebite severity in patients bitten by rattlesnakes in southern California. Wilderness and Environmental Medicine 21:120–126. [PDF]

Kanaan, N.C., J. Ray, M. Stewart, K.W. Russell, M. Fuller, S.P. Bush, E.M. Caravati, M.D. Cardwell, R.L. Norris, and S.A. Weinstein 2015. Wilderness Medical Society practice guidelines for the treatment of pitviper envenomations in the United States. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 26:472–487. [PDF]

Kennicott, R. 1861. On three new forms of rattlesnakes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 13:206–208. [PDF]

Klauber, L.M. 1956. Rattlesnakes – Their Habits, Life Histories and Influence on Mankind, 2 Vols. 1476 pp. University of California Press, Los Angeles and Berkeley, California.

Klauber, L.M. 1972. Rattlesnakes – Their Habits, Life Histories and Influence on Mankind, 2 Vols. 1536 pp. (2nd ed.) University of California Press, Los Angeles and Berkeley, California.

Massey, D.L., J.J. Calvete, E.E. Sanchez, L. Sanz, K. Richards, R. Curtis and K. Boesen. 2012 . Venom variability and envenoming severity outcomes of the Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake) from southern Arizona. Journal of Proteomics 75:2576-2587. [PDF]

Parrish, H.M. 1980. Poisonous Snakebites in the United States. 469 pp. Vantage Press, New York.

Protherics Inc. 2000 CroFab Package Insert dated October 2000. PLA Reference No. 98-0507. [PDF]

Reyes-Velasco, J., J.M. Meik, E.N. Smith and T.A. Castoe. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic longtailed rattlesnakes (Crotalus ericsmithi, C. lannomi, and C. stejnegeri). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 69:524–534. [PDF]

San Diego Union-Tribune. 2000. Mojave rattlesnake might be in county. San Diego Union-Tribune. 25 March 2000; Page B-1 [PDF]

Sherer, L.M. 1967. The name Mojave, Mohave: A history of its origin and meaning. Southern California Quarterly 49:1–36. [PDF]

Smelski, G., M. Cardwell, and J Larsen. 2023. Neurotoxic respiratory failure absent following Arizona rattlesnake bites. Toxicon. 224 (2023) 107034. [PDF]

Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. (2nd ed.) 336 pp. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. (3rd ed.) 533 pp. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Massachusetts.

Vetter, R.S. 2015. The Brown Recluse Spider. 186 pp. Cornell University Press, Ithica, New York.

Wilkinson, J.A., J.L. Glenn, R.C. Straight, and J.W. Sites, Jr. 1991. Distribution and generic variation in venom A and B populations of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) in Arizona. Herpetologica 47:54–68. [PDF]

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